31 Mart 2015 Salı


BAIKAL NEOLITHIC: Neolithic period of the Lake Baikal region in eastern Siberia. Stratified sites in the area show a long, gradual move from the Paleolithic to Neolithic stage, starting in the 4th millennium bc. The postglacial culture was not “true” Neolithic in that it farmed, but was Neolithic in the sense of using pottery. It was actually a Mongoloid hunting and fishing culture (except in southern Siberia around the Aral Sea) with a microlithic flint industry with polished stone blade tools together with antler, bone, and ivory artifacts, pointed- or round-based pottery, and the bow and arrow. Points and scrapers made from flakes of Mousterian flakes and pebble tools displaying the ancient chopping tool tradition of eastern Asia have also been found. There was a woodworking and quartzite industry and some cattle breeding. The first bronzes of the region are related to the Shang period of northern China and the earliest Ordos bronzes. The area covers the mountainous regions from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean and the taiga (coniferous forest) and tundra of northern Siberia. A first stage is named for the site Isakovo and is known only from a small number of burials in cemeteries. The succeeding Serovo stage is also known mainly from burials with the addition of the compound bow backed with bone plates. The third phase, named Kitoi, has burials with red ocher and composite fish hooks that possibly indicate more fishing. The succeeding Glazkovo phase of the 2nd millennium bc saw the beginnings of metal-using, but generally showed continuity in artifact and burial types. Some remains of semi-subterranean dwellings with centrally located hearths occur, together with female statuettes in bone.

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