EBBSFLEET WARE: a family of elaborately decorated Neolithic ceramics found in southern and eastern parts of the British Isles. Dating to the period 3000-2000 BC. Peterborough wares were divided into three successive styles Ebbsfleet, Mortlake, and Fengate – on the basis of their occurrence in the ditch fills at Windmill Hill. It is now recognized that these three groups overlap rather more than originally thought, and that they are best seen as part of the broad group of impressed wares found over much of northern Europe in the 3rd millennium bc. The decoration on Peterborough ware consists of pits, “maggot impressions” made by impressing tightly rolled cord, and the impressions made by pressing the ends of bird bones into the soft clay before firing. Some of the later vessels are the first in Britain to be made with flat bases. (Peterborough ware).
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EARTHENWARE: ceramics fired at temperatures high enough for vitrification to begin, usually 900 1200°C. It is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous ceramic material, usually low-fired, porous, and permeable.
EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD: a chronological phase in southern Mesopotamia between c. 2900 and 2330 bc, ending with the founding of the dynasty of Akkad. It was also known as the Pre-Sargonid period. The Sumerian city states flourished under their separate dynastic rulers – Ur, Umma, Kish, and Lagash. The period is 3100–2450 bc on what is called the “high chronology” (the other being the “medium chronology”). The term itself is derived from the Sumerian “king list” which implies that Sumer was ruled by kings at this stage, although archaeological evidence for the existence of kingship is meager before the middle of the period. Traditionally, it is divided by archaeologists into three subdivisions – ED I, II, and III – each of approximately 200 years’ duration. The royal tombs of Ur belong to the ED III period. The Early Dynastic phase shows clear continuity from the preceding Jemdet Nasr, and represents a period of rapid political, cultural, and artistic development. Within the period, the pictographic writing of the earlier period developed into the standardized cuneiform script. This period represents the earliest conjunction of archaeological and written evidence for the history of southern Mesopotamia.